Bob...local Alaskan residents will probably confirm this reply, but I think the reason for the kinks in the pipeline are to allow for expansion/contraction in that land of extreme weather. If pipeline was perfectly straight, it'd buckle or pull apart during exp/cont. Going underground occasionally allows migrating caribou herds to cross. Can't build the whole shebang underground 'cause it'd destroy the permafrost. I lived in British Columbia for many years, and I'm loving your travelogue and narrative. Thanks tons.