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Technical 1932 Pickup Rebuild Thread UPDATED 1/11/16

Discussion in 'Traditional Hot Rods' started by Dennis Lacy, Apr 5, 2015.

  1. rsssbelair
    Joined: Dec 29, 2009
    Posts: 36

    rsssbelair
    Member
    from nebraska

    Thank you so much for the step by step and all the write-ups that go along with it. I just bought piles of what will be a '33 pick-up, and never messing with anything close to it. Your thread will save me time, money and a long long road of learning headache and lessons, to have a great outcome in the end. Thank you so much for all your efforts.
     
  2. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    I did get the frame cleaned and the front axle assembly under it today but without the weight of the engine there's no way to know for sure how much more things will settle. I didn't get a measurement before I pulled the old axle out so there's no way of knowing that. I do know that travel wasn't an issue in the past. Now it's the same spring minus 4 leaves. It is going to need a spacer on the bottom of the spring so that the clamp will work.
     
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  3. dumprat
    Joined: Dec 27, 2006
    Posts: 3,157

    dumprat
    ALLIANCE MEMBER
    from b.c.

    Hmm. Ok. I am going to put two spacers on top of mine and see how it sits. 1/2" more ride height is not a big deal.
     
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  4. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    PEDALS AND MASTER CYLINDER

    In this post I will show the assembly of the pedals and the assembly and installation of the 1932 Ford Master Cylinder Kit that we manufacture and have been selling by the hundreds since 1996. The kit is manufactured entirely in-house right here in the good old USA! The kit is also designed as a 100% bolt-on setup that (unlike other '32 master cylinder kits on the market) requires ZERO modifications to the pedals or frame. No drilling, cutting or welding. It is also designed so that the original battery bracket still fits just behind the K-member in it's original location. (other '32 master cylinder kits require the battery to be relocated.)

    Here are all of the parts that make up the pedal assembly including our extended pedal shaft and add-on master cylinder lever.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    As I mentioned back on the first page, our '32 Ford master cylinder kit was developed on my truck and it still wears the prototype which has some physical differences from the production parts. In the photo below is the prototype pedal shaft and lever (left) and production pedal shaft and lever (right.) It was realized that it would be much easier to produce a shaft that didn't require machining (like the stepped-down prototype shaft) and the lever needed a steel sleeve welded to it anyway so a larger sleeve was used with a shortened pedal bushing.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    Between the brake and clutch pedal there is this thin spring washer to take up any side-to-side slop in the pedals.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    This tapered pin goes through the pedal bracket and shaft and keeps the shaft from rotating.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    Pedal assembly is straight forward. Apply a film of grease to the pedal bushings and shaft then insert the shaft through the right side of the pedal bracket with the brake pedal on the right, the clutch pedal on the left and the spring washer between the pedals.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    The tapered lock pin is driven through the pedal bracket sleeve and through the shaft.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    Then the add-on master cylinder lever is installed onto the end of the extended pedal shaft. The upper 5/16" hole is match-drilled to line up perfectly with the hole in the lever that is part of the brake pedal. The 5/16" grade 8 bolt has a shoulder on it that is the correct length to pass through the levers. Lock nuts (C-lock which have an oblong hole) are used on the bolt and tightened so there is no slop in the bolt but the bolt is still free to rotate. This pins the add-on lever to the brake pedal lever so that they pivot together. (Fully tightening the upper bolt can cause the add-on lever to bind as it tries to pivot with the pedal.) A cotter pin (on production versions a washer as well) is installed through the end of the shaft. It's not really needed since the lever is pinned to the pedal, it's just for peace of mind.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    I have not run the upper bolt lock nut down in these photos because I will need to add an additional washer under the bolt head for the original stop switch linkage spring to attach to at a later time.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    Below is a photo of our '32 master cylinder kit bracket. The production version is on top and the prototype from my truck on the bottom. The shape of the bracket was altered to make it easier to produce. The half-round cut out along the top edge fits around a factory rivet head on the frame K-member. The whole top edge of the prototype bracket was relieved to go around the rivet.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    This is the master cylinder that we provide with the kit. It is an early GM 7/8" bore unit. (We can also provide a dual reservoir unit if the customer desires.) The typical 3-bolt '39-'48 Ford master cylinder that most people use is 1 1/16". Because of the ratio of the lever in our kit it is necessary to use a 7/8" unit for correct pedal effort. This is a result of having the lever long enough so that the master cylinder push rod passes under the K-member.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    The master cylinder installed onto the mounting bracket.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    Here is the master cylinder push rod broken down into it's separate parts.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    The push rod assembled. I put a little bit of silver anti-seize on the first half inch of the rod threads and a little bit of black grease on the clevis pin.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    Below are photos showing the completed and installed pedal assembly and Master Cylinder Kit. Again, no drilling, cutting, welding of any kind. The master cylinder bracket attaches using factory holes in the K-member. One of the philosophies at our shop is to find bolt-on solutions using factory holes and unmodified parts whenever possible and practical. Why butcher factory parts when it's not necessary?

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

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    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki
     
    Last edited: Jun 29, 2015
  5. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    ANOTHER UPDATE

    The MT front brake plates came back from powder coating. Very pleased with the results of adding the extra shield rings.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

    I also got the whole front of the frame thoroughly cleaned, the front axle assembly installed under the frame and finally got the 4 cylinder engine "snubber" (engine shock absorber thing) taken off of the firewall and the firewall and insulator pad cleaned.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

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  6. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    SMALL UPDATE

    Today on my lunch break I went ahead and installed the MT front brake plates. I also slipped my '40 drums on (reusing from the last incarnation) and snugged up the bearing nuts so that I could spin the drums and make sure there is no interference with the added-on shield rings. Thankfully, no issues there which means I actually got them centered on the brake plates! I will have to wait to assemble to brakes because the new shoes will need to be arch-ground to match the drums - which still need a thin machining and fresh paint. I was really tempted to pull the protective plastic wrap off of a couple of wheels and stick them on but decided to hold off because I don't want the wheels to get dirty or damaged.

    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki

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    At this point I'm running thin on finished shiny parts to install so it looks like next week I'm gonna have to dig into the next phase of the project which will be rebuilding the original steering gear. I plan to fully cover the process so stay tuned!
     
  7. Dick Stevens
    Joined: Aug 7, 2012
    Posts: 3,192

    Dick Stevens
    Member

    Sorry Larry, we will be patiently waiting. :rolleyes:
     
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  8. 3wLarry
    Joined: Mar 11, 2005
    Posts: 12,804

    3wLarry
    Member Emeritus
    from Owasso, Ok

    :p
     
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  9. Runnin shine
    Joined: Apr 12, 2013
    Posts: 3,316

    Runnin shine
    Member

    I'll be patiently twiddling.
     
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  10. 3wLarry
    Joined: Mar 11, 2005
    Posts: 12,804

    3wLarry
    Member Emeritus
    from Owasso, Ok

    this whole thread is slicker than greased goose shit
     
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  11. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    From what I understand, that's pretty slick!
     
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  12. 31pickemup
    Joined: Apr 9, 2006
    Posts: 1,276

    31pickemup
    Member

    I think that's what he used on the front springs!
     
  13. Dick Stevens
    Joined: Aug 7, 2012
    Posts: 3,192

    Dick Stevens
    Member

    I don't really want to know how you know how slick that is, but???? :rolleyes::rolleyes::rolleyes::rolleyes:
     
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  14. AD_NAPCO
    Joined: Mar 14, 2008
    Posts: 415

    AD_NAPCO
    Member

    I don't even own a Ford, although I dig them, and I absolutely love this thread. I'm really impressed with your ability to translate your process into a coherent narrative and well thought out photo documentation. Thanks very much for this. Will anxiously be waiting your steering gear write up.
     
  15. Greased Goose Shit aside:rolleyes: It looks like the bottom of the spring is hitting the top of the axle. How did you correct
    that?
    [​IMG]
     
  16. Runnin shine
    Joined: Apr 12, 2013
    Posts: 3,316

    Runnin shine
    Member

    Maybe it has about a 1/4" clearance and appears this way from taking picture from above.
     
  17. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    I guarantee you that it was never touching the axle, nor will it on the new assembly. :cool:
     
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  18. We need a fix
     
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  19. TexasSpeed
    Joined: Nov 2, 2009
    Posts: 4,618

    TexasSpeed
    Member

    You're not the only one having withdrawals.
     
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  20. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    Sorry guys. I'm on Day 3 of being home sick. Not much going on this week.
     
  21. Runnin shine
    Joined: Apr 12, 2013
    Posts: 3,316

    Runnin shine
    Member

    At Least your taking your dosage of the HAMB, second best medicine for a rodder I know of.
     
  22. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    For those following sorry that there was no update this weekend. I missed 3 days of work this past week so I didn't get anywhere near as far on truck work as I wanted to. On Monday I did get the steering gear completely torn down and Friday I got all of the parts washed but I need to get a little farther before I put together Part 1 of the steering gear coverage. I might get something up towards the middle of the coming week or worst case, next weekend.

    Stay tuned...
     
  23. DDDenny
    Joined: Feb 6, 2015
    Posts: 15,342

    DDDenny
    Member
    from oregon

    Glad your feeling better Dennis.
     
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  24. hardtimesainit
    Joined: Jan 24, 2009
    Posts: 606

    hardtimesainit
    Member

    Hey Dennis,
    Hope you're feeling better, as I am after reading this thread yesterday ! I asked a question , about my drag link being TOO long by maybe 11/2 to 2" on the early V8 section. Mart saw my plea for help and directed me over to your thread. WOW, my brain lit up when I saw this thread contents ! Knowing nothing of putting a dropped axle in my '30 A roadster, I'd screwed up royally ..whaaah,eh !
    Anyway, your good work and sharing such , has caused me to take the entire front end out AGAIN and to do it right ! THANKS much for you instructions/help !! Might call you for some parts also. And, I put the same Lincoln brake kit (front and rear) under my roadster, with same lack of skills, but following written instructions and many phone calls. I'm not sliding towards the windshield , when applying brake ...yet, so may have to call you there also.
     
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  25. dumprat
    Joined: Dec 27, 2006
    Posts: 3,157

    dumprat
    ALLIANCE MEMBER
    from b.c.

    Anything new with this build?
     
  26. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    Yes! I've began work on the steering gear and started the write-up last night. Not sure what kind of time I'll have today but I will get it posted by tomorrow.
     
  27. Fogger
    Joined: Aug 18, 2007
    Posts: 1,570

    Fogger
    Member

    Dennis, Looking forward to the steering box rebuild. Saving the original parts, as you have, maintains the heritage of the early Fords. Great coverage and detailed explanation of the procedures. This info will benefit many members. Ron
     
  28. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    STEERING GEAR – PART 1


    At this point in the project I am going to turn my attention towards over hauling the steering gear. I would like to have it completed and installed before I start down the path of fitting the engine because once it is in place it may not be possible to get the steering gear back in! With the “B” 4 cylinder engine the starter must be removed to allow sufficient room to get the gear in and out and with a flathead V8 the exhaust manifold or header must be removed.


    Early (32-34) Ford Steering Gears


    Over the decades early Ford steering gears have earned a bad reputation. They leak, they're sloppy, they're impossible to adjust and they require too much physical effort to turn the wheels. As I have become somewhat of a “specialist” when it comes to these gear boxes I have found that in most cases those accusations are the result of misunderstanding or lack of knowledge on the users part. While these early gear boxes do have some limitations, with some studying, modernization and careful attention to detail they can be made to work quite well.


    The typical '32-'34 Ford steering gear looks like this:


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The housing is made up of two pieces – the main (worm) housing and the side (sector) housing. There are probably half a dozen variations of worm housings (different manufacturer markings) but the housings across all three years are identical in shape/dimension and interchange. The sector housing has two specific designs, one for '32 and the other for '33-'34.


    Originally as '32 production got under way there were two dedicated sector housings, one for passenger cars and one for light commercial vehicles. The actual castings are the same, where they differ is the offset of the 3 mounting holes in the triangle shaped flange that attaches at the frame. This is necessary because the steering gear and column are mounted at a steeper angle in light commercial vehicles. Typically (but not always) the passenger car version will be stamped with the letter “A” on the mounting flange and the commercial version will be stamped with a “B”. At some point during the '32 year the “B” sector housing was discontinued and instead the three mounting holes in the side of the frame rail were slotted so that the steering gear and column could be rotated up or down depending on if the vehicle was a commercial or passenger. The photo below shows the commercial “B” version on the left and the passenger “A” version on the right.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The '33/'34 sector housing is very similar to a '32. The differences being that the '33/'34 is slightly shorter and the triangle shaped mounting flange is clocked opposite the '32. In '33/'34 there is only one sector housing. The mounting holes in the frame were slotted so that the angle of the gear and column could be adjusted to fit passenger or commercial vehicles. In the photo below the '32 sector housing is on the left and the '33/'34 sector housing is on the right.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The gear ratio for '32 to mid-'33 is 13:1. The gear ratio for late-'33 thru '34 is 15:1. As the ratio number increases, the physical effort required to steer the wheels decreases. The trade off is that as the ratio number increases, so does the turning distance lock-to-lock. Between 13:1 and 15:1 that distance is a half turn of the steering wheel. As luck would have it, the worm and sector gears (and all other internal parts) from '32 thru '34 are interchangeable. That means a '32 to mid-'33 steering gear can be upgraded to the 15:1 gear set and see a reduction in physical steering effort. The steering gear from my truck was still the original 13:1 ratio so I will be upgrading it to 15:1.


    Up until about 5 years ago the only way to be able to upgrade a '32 to mid-'33 gear box to 15:1 ratio was to get lucky and find a good used set of original gears or get really lucky and find an NOS set. Reproduction gears had been available but they were not made correctly and were next to impossible to work with. Luckily, the aftermarket finally came to the rescue and started offering high quality reproduction gear sets that set up and run every bit as nice as an NOS original set.


    In the photo below is the original 13:1 worm gear (top) and new 15:1 worm gear (bottom.) You can notice the different shape.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    Although this is a reproduction gear, all original 15:1 worms are similarly marked with a “15”.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    In the photo below is the original 13:1 sector gear (left) and new 15:1 sector gear (right). Note that the triangle shaped gaps between teeth are wider on the 13:1. Although it is a reproduction, original 15:1 sector gears are similarly marked with a “15”.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    Again, 13:1 (top) and 15:1 (bottom).


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki
     
    Last edited: Jul 5, 2015
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  29. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    STEERING GEAR – PART 2


    Dis-assembly


    Here is an overall picture of the steering gear for my truck. Unless you have an open top car the gear must be removed as a whole assembly with the column, wheel and horn button. This is because the horn button has a rod that runs all the way down through the steering shaft and out the bottom of the gear to operate the original light switch. The button/rod must be removed to access the steering wheel nut. With any kind of close car the roof can get in the way of pulling the button/rod all the way out.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    At the bottom of the steering gear where the horn button rod protrudes there is a fork (that operates the light switch) and spring retained by a half circle clip. Push on the fork to compress the spring and remove the half circle clip, then the fork and spring will come off the end of the rod and the horn button/rod can be pulled up and out from the other end.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    When the fork, spring and clip are removed they will look like this.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    With the horn button/rod removed the steering wheel retaining nut can now be accessed and removed with a 15/16” wrench or socket.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    This steering wheel removal tool is a copy of an original K.R. Wilson Ford tool by Winfield Tool Works. The base of the tool has a thick rubber pad so it will not damage the underside of the wheel. It also has a brass slug that presses on the end of the steering shaft and will not damage the shaft. This is one of those tools that you don't need very often but is super nice to have!


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    With the steering wheel removed unlock the ignition switch, loosen the clamp at the base of the steering column tube and slide the tube up and off of the steering gear/shaft.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    Towards the top of the steering shaft is the striker collar for the ignition switch lock. It is held in place with two special set screws. Typically the screws will be staked in place to prevent them from backing out. Use a quality screw driver that is a good fit in the screw slots and work them out. Sometimes they come out fairly easy, sometimes they put up a fight. Do your best to not destroy them. Once the set screws are out the collar can be driven off of the shaft. I use a special shaped drift shown in the second picture below.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The gear housing is clamped into a bench vise on the upper bearing retainer with aluminum “soft jaws” to prevent tooth marks from the vise. Remove the 4 nuts holding the sector housing to the worm housing and remove the housing along with the sector gear.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    Remove the two 1/4” bolts at the bottom of the worm housing and remove the light switch mounting cup and lower seal plate. Originally, 32's did not have the brass tube attached to the lower plate. Ford started this in '33 in an effort to reduce oil leaks. My steering gear had been retrofitted with the brass tube version in the past. This is somewhat common to find.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The gear housing is then clamped in the vise so that it's standing upright. Remove the four 5/16” bolts attaching the upper bearing retainer to the worm housing.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    After removing the bearing retainer underneath it there is a spring washer assembly that simply pulls out of the gear housing.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    With the spring washer removed the upper worm bearing cup will be exposed. At this point the shaft,gear and bearings can be removed from the worm housing simply by grabbing the shaft and pulling it up and out of the housing. There are tapered roller bearings at both ends of the gear.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    On the side of the worm housing there is a stud with a slotted top, jamb nut and lock washer. This stud sets the thrust on the sector gear. Remove the jamb nut with a 3/4” wrench or socket and screw the stud out of the housing.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


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    At this point the steering gear is disassembled and the housings and parts should be cleaned and inspected for wear and damage.
     
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  30. Dennis Lacy
    Joined: Apr 27, 2008
    Posts: 1,158

    Dennis Lacy
    Member

    STEERING GEAR – PART 3


    Worm Gear Removal and Replacement


    As I mentioned before, the steering gear in my truck still has the original 13:1 ratio and I am going to upgrade to the late-'33 and '34 ratio of 15:1 using a new reproduction gear set. Doing so means removing the existing worm gear from the steering shaft and installing the new one. This is, absolutely, the most difficult part of the rebuild process if a person doesn't have experience and some custom made specialty tools for the job. It's real easy to damage parts if the process is approached incorrectly or forced. The last thing you want is to ruin a '32 steering shaft because they are impossible to come by.


    Pictured below is a 1” thick aluminum block with a hole in the center the size of the steering shaft. There is also a 3/8” bolt with a half-round recess cut into the head.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The aluminum block is slid down the shaft and up against the top of the worm gear. The block is then clamped in a bench vise, but not too tight as it will compress. The shaft needs to be free to slide in the block.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The bolt is then inserted into the bottom of the steering shaft. Note that the head of the bolt bears against the end of the shaft but not the worm gear.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    I then use a large 2-jaw puller. The jaws hook around the aluminum block and the tip of the puller screw fits into the half-round recess in the head of the bolt. I use a long 1/2” drive breaker bar with a 3/4” impact socket to tighten the screw against the end of the shaft. It usually takes a lot of force to break the worm gear free so that the shaft starts to push out of it. Typically when it first breaks free there will be a loud “pop” and the effort needed will get slightly less. Sometimes the worm gear will not come loose. In that case I tighten the puller really tight and apply heat to the worm gear with an oxygen/acetylene torch. I don't have to heat the worm bright red, just a few seconds of even heat application and I will hear the loud “pop” as the worm lets go. I can then turn the torch off and remove the worm with the puller. Failing that, the worm gear can be carefully sliced through length-wise with a die grinder and cutoff wheel. I've only had to do that once or twice.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    With the worm removed there will be obvious burrs left behind on the shaft from the splines inside the gear. These burrs will need to be dressed off before the new worm can be installed.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    To remove the burrs I put the steering shaft in our lathe and polish them away using an 80 grit sanding belt turned inside out.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The dressed shaft looks like this when I'm finished.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    To install the new worm we have this home made aluminum block that clamps around the steering shaft. The same bolt from before is used, this time with several thick washers so that it pushes on the end of the worm gear.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    The worm gear is roughly 3” long. I put a mark at about 3 1/4” on the shaft then install the aluminum clamp just behind it. The black mark serves two purposes. 1) So I know where to position the clamp without it interfering with the worm gear. 2) So that if the shaft starts being pushed through the clamp I can tell right away. If that is happening then the worm is no longer being pressed onto the shaft.


    The aluminum clamp is tightened as much as possible without breaking the bolts and it is then clamped tight in the bench vise, as tight as I can physically manage and then some. I don't want the shaft to move! A big bench vise come in handy because I have broken a smaller vise in half trying to tighten it enough to do this.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    I apply some black grease to the end of the shaft and the worm gear is started on the end of the shaft. There are splines inside the worm and they only are half the length of the gear. The splines go towards the end of the shaft. There is also a taller spline that aligns with the key slot in the shaft. With the gear properly aligned I tap it onto the shaft as far as I can with a plastic mallet. The bolt with washers is then inserted into the worm/shaft and the same large 2-jaw puller is used to push the worm the rest of the way onto the shaft.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


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    When the worm is fully installed it will be flush with the end of the shaft.


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    All done!


    [​IMG]Hosted on Fotki


    Again, I have to caution that without some experience and some specialty tools this operation can be absolutely frustrating for the average person to attempt. What the photos above don't show is that pushing the new gear on doesn't always go smoothly. Sometimes the new gear will get within a quarter inch or less of being fully installed and just stop. In those cases it is necessary to remove the gear and dress the shaft a little bit more until the new gear will push all of the way on. The gear needs to be tight on the shaft so it is crucial that a minimum amount of material be removed from the shaft. Having done so many of them now I have the process and feel down pretty good. Despite my experience, every once in a while I have one that just doesn't want to cooperate as has to come back apart multiple times before the gear will go all the way on.
     
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